This Municipal Stormwater
Management Plan for the
The Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan has been prepared in accordance with the NJDEP Tier A Stormwater Guidance Document dated April 2004 and contains all of the required elements of a Municipal Stormwater Management Plan contained in N.J.A.C. 7:8 Stormwater Management Rules. The Plan addresses the groundwater recharge, stormwater quality, and stormwater quantity impacts of land development and redevelopment projects by identifying stormwater management design and performance standards for new major land developments, defined as projects that disturb one or more acre of land. These standards are intended to minimize the adverse impacts of stormwater runoff from such projects on water quality and quantity and prevent a loss of groundwater recharge. The Plan also describes operation and maintenance requirements for the stormwater management facilities that are created to achieve these standards in order to insure their long-term performance.
It is important to note that this Plan contains those Municipal Stormwater Management Plan components that must be completed within twelve months of the April 1, 2005 effective date of the Township’s Tier A Municipal Stormwater General Permit. As such, this Plan will require modification in the future to incorporate the adopted municipal Stormwater Control Ordinance and those additional Plan components that must be completed within twelve months of the Plan’s original adoption date.
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), stormwater runoff is a major component of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, the largest remaining source of pollutants in our nation’s waters. The USEPA has also documented how the quality of our surface and ground waters is directly related to the overall health of our environment. Similarly, the NJDEP estimates that up to 60 percent of existing water pollution problems are attributable to NPS pollution and, in particular, the pollutants in stormwater runoff. However, since these pollutants originate from numerous, diffuse sources and are conveyed by runoff from an entire drainage area or watershed, they can be difficult to identify, regulate, and treat.
In natural environments that are undisturbed by land development, precipitation that reaches the ground surface can follow a number of routes. If the surface is covered with vegetation, the majority of the precipitation is either intercepted by the surface vegetation or infiltrates into the soil. Intercepted precipitation can evaporate back into the atmosphere along with the precipitation that collects in depressions on the ground surface. Infiltrated precipitation can either be drawn up by the root systems of the surface vegetation and transpired back into the atmosphere or can move downward to the groundwater, thereby recharging this important resource. A smaller portion of the precipitation typically runs off the ground surface to downstream creeks, streams, and rivers. This process, known as the hydrologic or water cycle and illustrated in the above figure, generally functions in equilibrium, but is susceptible to changes in the cycle’s various processes, most notably changes in the ground surface upon which the precipitation falls.
Since land development by its very nature alters the ground surface, it can dramatically impact the natural hydrologic cycle and cause severe stormwater impacts if it is not carefully planned, designed, constructed, and maintained. Land development typically replaces natural vegetation with lawns and impervious surfaces, thereby reducing the site’s natural evaporation, transpiration and infiltration rates. Construction activities can compact the soil, further reducing its ability to infiltrate. These reductions increase the amount of stormwater runoff that flows across the ground surface and decrease the amount that recharges into the groundwater. Land development also typically connects the runoff from impervious surface directly to a constructed drainage system of gutters, channels, and storm sewers. These systems transport runoff more quickly than natural surfaces and conveyance systems. This, in turn, shortens the area’s rainfall-runoff response time, causing flow in downstream waterways to peak faster and at greater rates than natural conditions. This combination of increased runoff volumes and greater runoff rates can create new and aggravate existing downstream flooding and erosion problems and increase the quantity of sediment both transported by and deposited in the waterway’s channel. Filtration of runoff and removal of pollutants by natural surface and channel vegetation is also eliminated through the use of constructed drainage systems.
Coupled with increased surface flows, reduced base flows due to decreases in groundwater recharge can produce greater fluctuations between normal and storm flow rates in streams and rivers, which can further increase channel erosion. Reduced base flows can also negatively impact the hydrology of adjacent wetlands and the health of biological communities that depend on this source of water. Finally, erosion and sedimentation can destroy habitat from which some species cannot adapt.
In addition to surface runoff increases and the loss of groundwater, land development often results in the accumulation of pollutants on the land surface that can be mobilized by runoff and transport to streams. New impervious surfaces and cleared areas created by development can accumulate a variety of pollutants from numerous sources, including the atmosphere, fertilizers, animal wastes, and leakage and wear from vehicles. These pollutants can include metals, suspended solids, hydrocarbons, pathogens, and nutrients which can adversely impact water quality and a wide range of important stream biota.
Land development can also adversely affect water quality and stream biota in more subtle ways. For example, stormwater falling on impervious surfaces or stored in detention or retention basins can become heated and raise the temperature of the downstream waterway, adversely affecting cold water fish species such as trout. Development can remove trees along stream banks that normally provide shading, stabilization, and leaf litter that falls into streams and becomes food for the aquatic community.
Finally, the pollution of surface waters and the depletion of groundwater caused by land development can impact both the quantity and quality of the drinking water supplies that are necessary to sustain existing populations and industries as well the recreational use of streams, rivers, and lakes.
In response to the adverse impacts of nonpoint source pollution, including those caused by uncontrolled land development, the United States Congress amended the 1972 Clean Water Act in 1987 to require management and control of these pollutant sources. As a result of this amendment, the USEPA expanded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) to include regulations for stormwater discharges. This included the issuance of a series of regulations culminating in the Phase II Storm Water Regulations in December 1999. Among other requirements, these regulations directed municipalities with separate storm sewer systems to develop programs to control the post-construction runoff from land development and redevelopment projects.
In response to these Phase II
Regulations, the State of New Jersey, which administers the federal NPDES
program through the State’s own New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NJPDES), initiated the New Jersey Municipal Stormwater Regulation
Program (NJAC 7:14A) in March 2004. This
program, which is administered by the NJDEP, addresses pollutants entering the
State’s waters from stormwater systems operated by local, county, state,
interstate, and federal government agencies.
These systems are collectively referred to as Municipal Separate Storm
Sewer Systems (MS4s). Under the
Municipal Stormwater Regulation Program, stormwater discharges from MS4s are
regulated through one of four general NJPDES Permits. These are the Tier A and Tier B Municipal
Stormwater General Permits, the Public Complex Stormwater General Permit, and
the Highway Agency Stormwater General Permit.
Each General Permit includes a number of Statewide Basic Requirements
(SBRs) that must be met by those authorized through the Permit to discharge
stormwater from their MS4. Each SBR
includes minimum performance standards, measurable goals, and implementation
Concurrently with the initiation of the Municipal
Stormwater Regulation Program, the State of New Jersey also enacted major
revisions to the New Jersey Stormwater Management Rules (NJAC 7:8). These revisions were the first major update
to the State’s Stormwater Management Rules since their original promulgation in
1983 and represented a fundamental change in the management of stormwater
The new Stormwater Management Rules provide both a framework and incentives for managing runoff and resolving NPS impairment caused by land development. The Rules also establish a hierarchy for implementation of stormwater management measures at major land development projects, with initial reliance on nonstructural stormwater management measures (also known as low impact development techniques) to manage stormwater runoff before using more traditional structural measures. The Rules also establish runoff control performance standards for soil erosion and sediment control, groundwater recharge, water quality, and water quantity; establish Special Area Protection measures for pristine and exceptional value waters; provide regulatory consistency between local and State regulatory agencies; and provide maintenance and safety standards for stormwater management measures.
In Subchapter 4, the new Stormwater Management Rules specify the required goals and contents of a Municipal Stormwater Management Plan as well as the schedule for its adoption as part of a municipality’s Master Plan. According to the Stormwater Management Rules and the Township’s Tier A Stormwater General Permit, a first version of this Plan must be adopted within twelve months of the Township’s April 1, 2004 effective date of General Permit authorization. In addition, the Stormwater Management Rules also contain the minimum technical and performance standards to be included in the implementing Stormwater Control Ordinance that is also required by the Township’s Tier A Stormwater General Permit. According to both the Rules and the Township’s General Permit, both the Stormwater Control Ordinance and the final version of the Plan must be adopted within twelve months of the Plan’s original adoption date.
The goals of the Township’s Municipal Stormwater Management Plan are presented below.
As required by the New Jersey Stormwater Management Rules at NJAC 7:8-4.2-c-1, the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan has been developed to achieve the following stormwater management planning goals:
1. Reduce flood damage, including damage to life and property.
2. Minimize, to the extent practical, any increase in stormwater runoff from any new development.
3. Reduce soil erosion from any development or construction project.
4. Assure the adequacy of existing and proposed culverts and bridges, and other in-stream structures.
5. Maintain groundwater recharge.
6. Prevent, to the greatest extent feasible, an increase in NPS pollution.
7. Maintain the integrity of stream channels for their biological functions, as well as for drainage.
8. Minimize pollutants in stormwater runoff from new and existing development in order to restore, enhance and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the waters of the State, to protect public health, to safeguard fish and aquatic life and scenic and ecological values, and to enhance the domestic, municipal, recreational, industrial and other uses of water.
9. Protect public safety through the proper design and operation of stormwater management basins.
In addition, the Township’s Land Use Code at Section 10B-227 – Surface Water Drainage requires the following:
· A proposed development shall, in accordance with this section and with applicable stream and flood plain encroachment laws and ordinances, be designed so as to provide for proper surface water management through a system of controlled drainage that, wherever practicable, preserves existing natural drainage patterns and wetlands and enhances groundwater recharge areas and that protects other properties and existing natural and artificial drainage features from the adverse effects of flooding, erosion and the depositing of silt, gravel or stone.
Further, the Township’s Flood Damage Prevention Ordinance has the following goals:
1. Protect human life and health.
2. Minimize expenditure of public money for costly flood control projects.
3. Minimize the need for rescue and relief efforts associated with flooding and generally undertaken at the expense of the general public.
4. Minimize prolonged business interruptions.
5. Minimize damage to public facilities and utilities such as water and gas mains, electric, telephone and sewer lines, and streets and bridges located in areas of special flood hazard.
6. Help maintain a stable tax base by providing for the second use and development of areas of special flood hazard so as to minimize future flood blight areas.
7. Insure that potential buyers are notified that property is in an area of special flood hazard.
8. Ensure that those who occupy the areas of special flood hazard assume the responsibility for their actions.
Finally, the Princeton Regional Planning Board’s stormwater control policy states:
1. Promote an integrated approach to regional stormwater management that addresses both water quality and quantity in the Township.
2. Design detention basins to fit into the natural terrain and preserve or reforest vegetation where appropriate in the Township.
3. Detention basins should be designed utilizing techniques that minimize disturbance and the size of the basin such as diversion of flow, compensation, and alternative quality measures.
4. Control both stormwater quality and quantity in the Borough where feasible.
To achieve all of the above goals, the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan outlines specific stormwater design and performance standards for major land development and redevelopment projects. Preventative and corrective maintenance strategies are included in the plan to ensure long-term effectiveness of stormwater management facilities. The plan also outlines safety standards for stormwater infrastructure to protect public safety.
While there are no interstate
highways within the Township, U.S. Highway Route 206 crosses the Township in a
generally north-south direction and State Highway Route 27 extends from
Princeton Borough across the eastern portion of the Township. In addition to
Routes 206 and 27, which are maintained by the New Jersey Department of
Transportation (NJDOT), portions of Mercer County Routes 533, 583, 604, 605, and
629 are located in the Township. These highways
and County roadways and their associated stormwater conveyance systems are
covered under NJPDES Highway Agency Stormwater General Permits issued to the
As part of the New Jersey
State Planning Commission’s Cross Acceptance process of the proposed State
Development and Redevelopment Plan, Princeton Township would include Planning
Areas 2, 3, and 5. In addition, a
portion of the Township is proposed for inclusion with Princeton Borough as a
Presently, the majority of
It should be noted that
13.1.1 Environmental Resources
Open Space - Based on data obtained from the Princeton Regional
Planning Board, approximately 2,782 acres or approximately 27% of
Contaminated Sites – According to the NJDEP, there are presently 21 sites with on-site sources of
It is important that the precise location, contaminants, case status, and required remedial activities at these sites be determined before specific stormwater management measures are proposed for any land development projects in their vicinity since they may impact measure selection, design, and maintenance.
Wellhead Protection Areas
- There are nine existing Public
Community Water Supply (PCWS) wells located within
A WHPA is divided into three sequential tiers based on the Time of Travel (TOT) to a production well. TOT is the time it takes for a given particle of groundwater to flow to a pumping well. It is directly related to the distance the groundwater must travel to arrive at the well once well pumping starts. For a given TOT, the distance will vary from well to well depending on the rate of pumping and aquifer characteristics. WHPA Tier 1 is derived from a 2-Year TOT and is based on findings that bacteria have polluted wells and viruses have survived in groundwater for up to 270 days. WHPA Tier 2, derived from a 5-year TOT, is based on the lag time of a pollution plume caused by adsorption/desorption, the variable rate of pollutant travel, and the acceleration of groundwater once it comes close to a pumping well. WHPA Tier 3 is derived from a 12-year TOT, and is established to provide sufficient time so that monitoring and cleanup of a potential pollution source or release can be completed before contamination reaches a pumping well. All three WHPA Tiers are defined using line boundaries and polygon areas generated with the ARC/INFO Geographic Information System.
Groundwater Recharge - A map of the various annual
groundwater recharge rates in
Geology - According to the Soil Survey of Mercer County prepared by
the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and the New Jersey Agricultural
Experiment Station, there are four major soil associations within
A map of these four major soil associations can be found in the Soil Survey of Mercer County.
Steep Slopes – Based upon an analysis of topographic mapping of the
Township, steep slopes exist at
multiple locations throughout
13.1.2 Water Resources
Wetlands - Based on the National Wetland Inventory prepared by
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the NJDEP Wetlands Inventory for
Waterways – A
plan of the waterways in
Watersheds – According to the NJDEP and
USGS, portions of five major watersheds are
HUC14 Watersheds in
From Route 206 to
From Heathcote Brook to
From Bedens Brook to Heathcote Brook
In addition, a portion of the
Finally, the Township’s Flood Mitigation Plan contains
additional figures that depict the major watersheds within
Current Waterway Health – The NJDEP has established
the Ambient Biomonitoring Network (AMNET) to document the health of the state’s
waterways. There are over 800 AMNET sites throughout the state of
to the AMNET data, NJDEP has classified both the Stony Brook, which borders the
Township to the west, and the
A TMDL is the amount of a particular pollutant that can be assimilated by a waterbody without causing its water quality standards to be exceeded or one or more of its designated uses to be interfered with. The TMDL is allocated, along with a margin of safety, to the various sources of the pollutant, including point sources such as wastewater discharges and nonpoint sources, which include runoff from agricultural, commercial, industrial, and residential areas. Provisions may also be made for future sources in the form of reserve capacity. An implementation plan is developed to identify how the various sources will be reduced to the designated allocations. Implementation strategies may include improved stormwater treatment plants, adoption of stormwater control ordinances, reforestation of stream corridors, retrofitting of existing stormwater systems, and other structural and nonstructural stormwater management measures.
New Jersey Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Report (305(b)
and 303(d)) (Integrated List) is a valuable source of water quality
information. The Integrated List must be prepared biennially by
NJDEP as required under the federal Clean Water Act. This combined report presents the extent to
Comprehensive descriptions and mapping of the current erosion and flooding problems throughout the Township are contained in the Township’s Flood Mitigation Plan, which was developed by the Princeton Township Flood Control Committee with assistance by the Natural Resources Conservation Service. By reference, this important document is made part of the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Plan.
In accordance with the requirements of the New Jersey Stormwater Management Rules (NJAC 7:8), major land developments within Princeton Township will be required to meet specific stormwater design and performance standards. These standards will be applied to these developments through the forthcoming Stormwater Control Ordinance that will be developed and adopted by the Township following the adoption of this Municipal Stormwater Management Plan. Summaries of these design and performance standards are presented below.
It is important to note that any major residential land
development proposed subject to review and approval by Princeton Township will also
be reviewed in accordance with the stormwater management requirements of the
New Jersey Residential Site Improvement Standards (NJAC 5:21). These standards may be supplemented where
permitted by additional stormwater design and performance standards developed
by the Township. In addition, any
application for a new agricultural development that meets the definition of
major development shall be submitted to the Mercer County Soil Conservation
District for review and approval in accordance with the requirements of this
section and the Standards for Soil Erosion and Sediment Control in
In accordance with the requirements of Subchapter 5 of
the Stormwater Management Rules, stormwater management measures for major land
Soil Erosion and
Sediment Control – All major
developments shall meet the requirements of the Soil Erosion and Sediment
Control Standards for New Jersey.
· Groundwater Recharge – Unless otherwise exempted by the Stormwater Management Rules, all major developments must either maintain 100% of the development site’s pre-developed annual groundwater recharge under post-developed site conditions or infiltrate the runoff increase between pre- to post-developed site conditions for a 2-Year, 24-hour III storm. Compliance with this standard must consider certain designated redevelopment areas and any WHPAs and known contaminated sites within the Township.
· Stormwater Quality – All major developments must reduce the total suspended solids (TSS) load in the development site’s post-construction runoff by a minimum of 80%. In addition, the post-construction nutrient load from the site must be reduced by the maximum extent feasible. Additional stormwater quality requirements are described below for land developments that drain to a Category One watercourse or its mapped tributaries.
· Stormwater Quantity – All major developments must demonstrate compliance with one of three alternative stormwater quantity requirements for the 2, 10, and 100-Year storm events. These alternatives are: 1) preservation of existing development site runoff volumes and rates, 2) preservation of existing downstream peak runoff rates under full watershed development, or 3) reduction in existing site peak runoff rates by 50%, 25%, and 20%, respectively.
· Nonstructural Stormwater Management - Compliance with the groundwater recharge and stormwater quality and quantity standards described above must be achieved through the use of nonstructural stormwater management measures to the maximum extent feasible. If the standards cannot be met through the exclusive use of nonstructural measures, then structural stormwater management measure shall be utilized to complete compliance.
Resource Protection Areas – All major
developments must maintain a 300-foot buffer measured from the top of bank of
all Category One watercourses, as designated by the NJDEP, and their
tributaries, as mapped by the USGS and the Soil Survey of Mercer County. At the present time, there are no NJDEP
designated Category One watercourses within
· Threatened and Endangered Species Searches – All major developments subject to review by NJDEP’s Land Use Regulation Program must conduct a Threatened and Endangered Species search using the Natural Heritage Database.
14.2 Exemption and Waiver Criteria
addition to the design and performance standards described above, the New
Jersey Stormwater Management Rules contain both exemption and waiver criteria
for each standard. These criteria are
presented in Subchapter 5 of the Stormwater Management Rules.
Finally, in accordance with Section 2.5 of Subchapter 2 of the Stormwater Management Rules, Princeton Township has the ability to petition the NJDEP for an exemption from any of the design and performance standards presented in Subchapter 5 of the Rules provided that such exemption will not result in an increase in flood damage, water pollution, threats to biological integrity, or constitute a threat to public safety. The Township may utilize this petition process if necessary during the development of its Stormwater Control Ordinance.
14.3 Maintenance Requirements
In order to ensure the proper functioning and
operation of all structural and nonstructural stormwater management measures,
According to the maintenance plan requirements contained in the Stormwater Management Rules, all stormwater management measure maintenance plans must contain:
· Specific preventative and corrective maintenance tasks and schedules.
· Cost estimates including the estimated costs of sediment, debris, and trash removal.
· The name, address, and telephone number of those responsible for maintenance.
In addition, the maintenance plan must guarantee that preventative and corrective maintenance will be performed to maintain the function of the stormwater management measure, including (where appropriate) structural repairs and replacements; sediment, debris, and trash removal; restoration of eroded areas; snow and ice removal; fence repair and replacement; restoration of vegetation; and repair and replacement of non-vegetated linings.
14.4 Safety Standards
order to protect the safety of maintenance and inspection personnel and the
In order to meet the design
and performance standards for major land developments described in Subchapter 5
of the Stormwater Management Rules,
As a result, the NJDEP Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual is incorporated by reference into the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan.
noted above in 14.2 – Exemption and
In accordance with the Municipal Stormwater Management Plan requirements in Subchapter 4 of the Stormwater Management Rules, Princeton Township will perform a Build-Out and Pollutant Load Analysis of the Township if it is determined that there is at least one square mile of developable land remaining in the Township. This analysis will be based upon current Township zoning and will use appropriate land use data and pollutant load models. This analysis will be completed by February 2, 2006 in accordance with the Municipal Stormwater Management Plan requirements of the Stormwater Management Rules. Upon completion of the Build-Out and Pollutant Load Analysis, appropriate revisions to the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan will be made to incorporate its results and recommendations.
In accordance with the Municipal Stormwater Management
Plan requirements in Subchapter 4 of the Stormwater Management Rules,
A copy of a recommended Stormwater Control Ordinance follows this appendix. This recommended ordinance is based upon the model ordinance contained in the NJDEP Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual. This model ordinance will serve as the basis for the final Stormwater Control Ordinance to be developed and adopted by the Township. Such adoption will occur within twelve months of the original adoption of this Plan.
20.0 Achievement of NJDEP Stormwater Management Planning Goals
· GOAL: Reduce flood damage, including damage to life and property – By requiring all major land developments to meet the stormwater quantity design and performance standards in Subchapter 5 of the Stormwater Management Rules, the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan will reduce flood damage. In addition, the Plan will require mitigation measures for major developments that cannot strictly comply with the stormwater quantity design and performance standards in the Township’s Stormwater Control Ordinance or the Residential Site Improvement Standards. Retrofits to existing stormwater collection systems and stormwater quantity management measures mandated by the Mitigation Plan will also reduce existing flood damage.
· GOAL: Minimize, to the extent practical, any increase in stormwater runoff from any new development – By requiring the use of nonstructural stormwater management measures, the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan will minimize the increase in stormwater runoff from new major land developments. Additionally, requiring compliance with the stormwater quantity standards described above will further decrease the potential for stormwater runoff increases from new land developments in the Township.
· GOAL: Reduce soil erosion from any development or construction project – The Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan requires that the Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Standards in New Jersey be followed for all major development projects. In addition, the Township also presently requires compliance with these standards for all projects that disturb at least 5,000 square feet of land.
· GOAL: Assure the adequacy of existing and proposed culverts and bridges, and other in-stream structures – By requiring all major land developments to meet the stormwater quantity design and performance standards in Subchapter 5 of the Stormwater Management Rules either directly or through appropriate mitigation measures, the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan will help assure the adequacy of existing and proposed culverts, bridges, and other in-stream structures.
· GOAL: Maintain groundwater recharge – By requiring all major land developments to meet the groundwater recharge design and performance standards in Subchapter 5 of the Stormwater Management Rules either directly or through appropriate mitigation measures analyses, the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan will help maintain groundwater recharge in the Township.
· GOAL: Prevent, to the greatest extent feasible, an increase in NPS pollution – By requiring all major land developments to meet the stormwater quality design and performance standards in Subchapter 5 of the Stormwater Management Rules either directly or through appropriate mitigation measures analyses, the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan will help prevent an increase in NPS pollution in the Township. These results will be enhanced through the maximum practical use of nonstructural stormwater management measures at such developments.
· GOAL: Maintain the integrity of stream channels for their biological functions, as well as for drainage – By requiring all major land developments to meet the groundwater recharge and stormwater quality and quantity design and performance standards in Subchapter 5 of the Stormwater Management Rules either directly or through appropriate mitigation measures analyses, the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan will help maintain the biological integrity of stream channels in the Township. These results will be enhanced through the maximum practical use of nonstructural stormwater management measures at such developments.
· GOAL: Minimize pollutants in stormwater runoff from new and existing development in order to restore, enhance and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the waters of the State, to protect public health, to safeguard fish and aquatic life and scenic and ecological values, and to enhance the domestic, municipal, recreational, industrial and other uses of water - By requiring all major land developments to meet the groundwater recharge and stormwater quality and quantity design and performance standards in Subchapter 5 of the Stormwater Management Rules either directly or through appropriate mitigation measures analyses, the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan will help achieve these multiple goals in waterways in the Township. These results will be enhanced through the maximum practical use of nonstructural stormwater management measures at such developments.
· GOAL: Protect public safety through the proper design and operation of stormwater management basins – By requiring the design of structural stormwater management facilities at major land developments to comply with the safety standards in Subchapter 6 of the Stormwater Management Rules, the Princeton Township Municipal Stormwater Management Plan will protect the safety of inspection and maintenance personnel and members of the general public.
The following definitions have been developed to supplement those contained in the New Jersey Stormwater Management Rules.
“Agricultural development” means land uses normally associated with the production of food, fiber and livestock for sale. Such uses do not include the development of land for the processing or sale of food and the manufacturer of agriculturally related products.
“Best Management Practices (BMPs)” are defined as any program, process, location criteria, operating method, measure or device that controls, prevents, removes, or reduces pollution.
“Category One (C1) Waters” means Waters of the State, including unnamed waterways that appear on Soil Survey and USGS Topographic Quadrangle within the same HUC 14 watershed, designated in NJAC 7:9B-1.15 (c) through (h) for purposes of implementing the anti-degradation policies set forth at NJAC 7:9B-1.5(d) for protection from measurable changes in water quality characteristics because of their clarity, color, scenic setting, other characteristics of aesthetic value, exceptional ecological significance, exceptional recreational significance, exceptional water supply significance, or exceptional fisheries resources(s).
“Development” includes the division of a parcel of land into two or more parcels, the construction, reconstruction, conversion, structural alteration, relocation or enlargement of any building or structure, any mining excavation or landfill, and any use or change in the use of any building or other structure, or land or extension of use of land. In the case of development on agricultural land, development means: any activity that requires a State permit; any activity reviewed by the County Agricultural Boards (CAB) and the State Agricultural Development Committee (SADC), and municipal review of any activity not exempted by the Right to Farm Act, N.J.S.A. 4:1C-1 et seq.
“High pollutant loading areas” are areas in industrial and commercial developments where solvents and/or petroleum products are loaded/unloaded, stored, or applied, areas where pesticides are loaded/unloaded or stored; areas where hazardous materials are expected to be present in greater than ‘reportable quantities’ as defined by the USEPA at 40 CFR 302.4; areas where recharge would be inconsistent with NJDEP approved remedial action work plan or landfill closure plan and areas with high risks for spills of toxic materials, such as gas stations and vehicle maintenance facilities.
“Impervious surface” means a surface that has been covered with a layer of material so that it is highly resistant to infiltration by water. Impervious surfaces include areas such as paved parking lots and concrete sidewalks.
“Infiltration” is the process by which water from precipitation seeps into the soil.
“Low Impact Development (LID)” attempts to replicate pre-development hydrology to reduce the impacts of development at a lot-level basis, treating rainwater where it falls by creating conditions that allow the water to infiltrate back into the ground. The primary goals of LID include greater infiltration of stormwater instead of regarding the water as disposable.
“Major development” includes those projects that disturb one (1) or more acres of land for the purposes of the Township regulations. Projects that increase impervious surfaces by 0.25 acres or more that are regulated by NJDEP are also considered major development. Disturbance includes the placement of impervious surface or exposure and/or movement of soil or bedrock or clearing, cutting, or removing of vegetation. Projects undertaken by any government agency which otherwise meet the definition of “major development” but which do not require approval under the Municipal Land Use Law, N.J.S.A. 40:55D-1 et seq., are also considered “major development.”
“Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution” refers to all sources that cannot be identified as a point discharge. These include stormwater surface runoff and agricultural runoff, among others.
“Pollutant” means dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, sewage, garbage, sewage sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive materials, heat, wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water.
“Pollution” refers to the man-made or man-induced alteration of the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological integrity of water.
“Recharge” means the amount of water from precipitation that infiltrates into the ground and moves below the root zone of surface vegetation.
“Redevelopment” refers to alterations that change the “footprint” of a site or building in such a way that result in the disturbance of one acre or more of land. The term is not intended to include such activities as exterior remodeling, which would not be expected to cause adverse stormwater quality impacts and offer no new opportunity for stormwater controls. The NJDEP does not consider pavement resurfacing projects that do not disturb the underlying or surrounding soil, remove surrounding vegetation, or increase the area of impervious surface to be “redevelopment projects.”
“Riparian” means an area of land or water within or adjacent to a surface water body.
“Source material” means any material(s) or machinery, located at an industrial facility that is directly or indirectly related to process, manufacturing or other industrial activities, which could be a source of pollutants in any industrial stormwater discharge to groundwater. Source materials include, but are not limited to, raw materials; intermediate products; final products; waste materials; by-products; industrial machinery and fuels, and lubricants, solvents, and detergents that are related to process, manufacturing, or other industrial activities that are exposed to stormwater.
“Stormwater” means water resulting from precipitation (including rain and snow) that runs off the land’s surface, is transmitted to the subsurface, or is captured by separate storm sewers or other sewage or drainage facilities, or conveyed by snow removal equipment.
“Stormwater runoff” means that portion of water from precipitation that flows across the surface of the ground.
“Threatened and Endangered Species” include the following: Endangered Species are those
whose prospects for survival in New Jersey are in immediate danger because of a
loss or change in habitat, over-exploitation, predation, competition, disease,
disturbance or contamination. Assistance is needed to prevent future extinction
"Time of Concentration (TC)” is defined as the time it takes for runoff to travel from the hydraulically most distant point of the drainage area to the point of interest within a watershed.
“Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)” is the amount of a pollutant that can be accepted by a waterbody without causing an exceedance of water quality standards or interfering with the ability to use a waterbody for one or more of its designated uses. The allowable load is allocated to the various sources of the pollutant, such as stormwater and wastewater discharges, which require a NJPDES permit to discharge, and NPS, which includes stormwater runoff from agricultural areas and residential areas, along with a margin of safety. Provisions may also be made for future sources in the form of reserve capacity. An implementation plan is developed to identify how the various sources will be reduced to the designated allocations. Implementation strategies may include improved stormwater treatment plants, adoption of ordinances, reforestation of stream corridors, retrofitting stormwater systems, and other BMPs.
“Total Suspended Solids (TSS)” refers to particles that are suspended in water. Suspended solids in water reduce light penetration in the water column, can clog the gills of fish and invertebrates, and are often associated with toxic contaminants because organics and metals tend to bind to particles. TSS is differentiated from total dissolved solids (TDS) by a standardized filtration process with the dissolved portion passing through the filter.
“Water Quality Design Storm” refers to the rainfall event used to analyze and design structural and nonstructural stormwater quality measures (also known as BMPs). As described in the Stormwater Management Rules, the Water Quality Design Storm follows a nonlinear pattern and has a total rainfall depth of 1.25 inches and a total duration of two hours.
“Wellhead protection areas (WHPAs)” in New Jersey are mapped areas calculated around a Public Community Water Supply well in New Jersey and are defined as that portion of an aquifer that contributes water to a well over a specified time interval.
New Jersey Department of
New Jersey Department
of Environmental Protection.
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Stormwater Management Rule Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved October 3, 2004 from NJDEP website: http://www.nj.gov/dep/watershedmgt/stormwaterfaqs.htm.
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. NJPDES Stormwater Tier A General Permit No. NJ0141852. Issued February 2, 2004.
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Tier A Municipal Stormwater Guidance Document – NJPDES General Permit No. NJ0141852. April 2004.
Department of Agriculture. Soil Survey of
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|C9||USGS Quadrangle Map|
|C11||Wellhead Protection Areas|
|C15||Waterways and Watersheds|
|C16||DRCC Review Zones|